• Installing a New Centre Stand Spring

    By Tom Hesom

    Most restorers reach the stage where the freshly painted centre stand has to be replaced, most likely with a new strong spring.  And most restorers have battled to stretch this very strong spring to fit over the fixing points with some sort of lever mechanism, skinned knuckles, much tongue work and less-than-polite expletives!

    Here is an easy way- – – –

    • The bike has to be lifted so as to have easy access underneath where the centre stand fits.
    • Bolt the stand loosely on to the pivot lugs on the frame and hanging downwards. (Don’t forget to grease the pivot points)
    • Put the end of the spring in your vice and bend it over sideways.
    • Then put washers into the gap between the coils.
    • Bend over the other way and put more washers in the other side.
    • The spring will now be longer.
    • Remove spring and try and see if it now fits easily over the fixing points.
    • If not put back in vice and slip in more washers.
    • After the spring fits the washers usually fall out when the stand is retracted to the folded up (riding) position.
    • If not they are easily pulled out with pliers or vice-grip.

     

     

     

     

     

     


  • Headlight Lens Replacement (Life Hack)

    By Ken Charleton

    I needed a glass headlight lens for a 1974 RD 350 Yamaha.  Kim Houde gave me an old 5 3/4-inch seal beam that was burnt out.  I just needed the lens but didn’t know how to cut the seal-beam.   I ended up using a tile cutter (with water) just holding it freehand over the smooth diamond blade.  Two minutes and the job was done.

    This wasn’t a glass lens glued to a plastic shell, it was your typical automotive round seal beam.  One of those jobs that I kept putting off because I was pretty sure it would end badly.  I was more surprised that the seal-beam didn’t shatter in my hands than how easy the job was.

     

     


  • For Sale

    1966 & 1967 Harley-Davidson 250cc Sprints by (Aermacchi)
     
    Not exactly as pictured!
    This is a project for someone without a life! LOL!
     I found a life ….or…. I now have more grandkids to babysit.
    – there are (2) engines: 1- 1966 knucklehead & 1- 1967 “smooth” head. Both turn over and have compression.
     – there are (2) frames and 1 is registered.
     – I have a seat pan and extra fenders
     – carb has been rebuilt.
     – custom made engine stand
     – bolts and hardware have been cleaned and plated at Cadorath.
     – 3 gas tanks.
     – frame, side tanks, fenders, swing arm(s), original handle bar have been powder-coated.
     – includes parts and service manual
     Best offer.
    Jerry @ (204) 284-8851 res:
         (204) 294-7066 cell

  • For Sale

    For sale one set of Yamaha 600 R6  fairings to fit 08-16, complete from front fender to rear fender to seat . Best offer . Call or text David at:
    Two Zero Four- 963 2157.
    Click on Pics for larger view

  • Irv Loewen

    By John Loewen

    | went to Winnipeg in 1992 to visit my 81-year-old father, who’d ridden and raced Indian motorcycles on and off for 56 years. He rode his 1936 Sport Scout every day, everywhere — the man knew how to ride.

    Dad was the secretary for the Manitoba Antique Motorcycle Club. At a meeting not long before my visit, members of the club told him you were required to have a motorcycle specific licence to operate a bike. Dad disagreed. “No, all you need is a driver’s licence.” That law changed in 1963, they said. A grandfather clause had been established so those who were already riding could get their motorcycle licence by filling out a form — no road test required. But the expiry date to fill out the form was the end of 1964. Dad had missed the cutoff by 28 years. | arrived in Winnipeg on a Sunday night and asked what was on the agenda. “I’m going to get my motorcycle licence,” he said.

    We headed down to the motor vehicle department on Monday afternoon. Dad hopped onto his Indian and told me to follow him in the station wagon. Downtown traffic was heavy and | had a hard time keeping up. He had fought as a fighter pilot in World War II, flying Spitfires and Thunderbolts; he knew what speed was. | arrived — long after him — and parked beside the Indian. A youthful driver examiner came over. “That’s a beautiful motorcycle. Is it yours?” “No, it’s my dad’s. He’s inside getting his

    motorcycle licence.” We chatted for a while, and then | saw Dad emerging from the office. | looked at his face and laughed as | said, “You didn’t get it, did you?” “Those bastards don’t know anything,” he said. “Who do they think they are, giving a motorcycletest when they don’t know anything about motorcycles?”

    Dad disliked Harleys, probably going back to the ‘30s and ’40s when he raced against them. He once said to me, “The only parts of a Harley that are any good are the pistons — they make good shifter knobs for Indians.” (He actually melted down a Harley piston to make a gearshift knob for his 1919 Indian Powerplus.) One of the main differences between old Indians and Harleys is the location of the throttle; a Harley’s throttle is on the right and an Indian’s is on the left.

    | asked Dad what happened at the motor vehicle office. “He asked me to show him how you signal for a left turn, a right turn, and for stopping. | showed him, and then he said that | was almost right, but that | used the wrong hand to signal. That’s when | told him that | rode an Indian — and not a damn Harley — and you can’t take your hand off the throttle to signal. | also told him he shouldn’t be giving anyone a motorcycle exam.”

    The examiner who’d come over to admire the bike was still standing next to me. Overhearing all of this, he looked at me. “Do you have a motorcycle license?” | nodded. “You’ll have to ride the bike home,” he said. “Your dad doesn’t have a licence.” “Good luck telling him that,” | said. The examiner walked over to Dad while he was preparing to fire up the bike, put his hand on Dad’s shoulder, and broke the bad news. Dad turned his head and looked at him, but | didn’t hear what Dad said. The examiner straightened, then slowly backed away. Dad fired up the Indian with one kick and left in a cloud of dust.

    | went into the office and got the motorcycle handbook. | convinced Dad to read it so he could answer the questions on the test. A week later, after I’d gone home, | phoned and asked if he’d passed the written test. Yes, he said. | asked if he took the road test. Yes, he said. And then | asked how it went.

    “They drive behind you in a car, and when they want you to turn, they put their turn signal on,” he said. “But the guy had a hard time keeping up with me. | think he signaled left. But my mirrors shake a lot. | turned right and went home and had a cold beer.”

    Dad never got his license, but kept riding his 1936 Indian until he had a stroke in 1997. He died two years later. I’ll never forget that day in the parking lot. That examiner likely won’t, either.

                  Irv’s early Motorcycle and WW2 days

    Dad and Ken Butterfield rode their bikes from Winnipeg through the states to Mexico and across to Los Angeles (stayed there a while) and back to Winnipeg. They left Dec.7th 1934 returning March 3rd 1935.  

    He rode his bike solo to the World’s Fairs in Chicago and New York (will check and see if I can unravel the years).

    In January 1937 he traveled to Daytona Florida for the first Daytona 200 motorcycle race, Sunday January 24th 3250 Km. There were several other riders from Winnipeg there. He got back to Winnipeg a week before getting married Feb 13th 1937. The average January temp in Winnipeg for 1937 was -25c.

    He was also at the 1938 Daytona. Apparently by himself..

     

     

        During the Second World War, Irv enlisted in the Air force on the 21st of  Dec 1940 (J7449) in Winnipeg, Manitoba. He took Initial Training School in Regina, SK and graduated the 26th of April 1941. Elementary Flying Training School was at Portage La Prairie, MB. His Service Flying Training School was in Yorkton, SK. There he received his wings and commission on the 11th of Sept. 1941. He left for England on the 4th of Oct 1941 and was assigned to the Royal Air force Training Command as a flying instructor. On the 13th of Sep 1943 he was promoted to Flying Officer and joined the Royal Air Force’s 134 Squadron near Cairo, Egypt, as a fighter pilot. The 134 provided defense for patrols along the North African coast.

    Hawker Hurricane

    With Hurricane fighter planes they helped push the German army and Field Marshall Rommel along the North Africa coast and out at Tunisia. During the summer of 1943 while on patrol over the Island of Crete, Irv was shot by a sniper on the ground. Luckily he was looking out the side window (he said to me) as the bullet went through this thigh and out through the top of the canopy of his airplane.

     He managed to control the bleeding and return to the airbase. After a few days in the hospital he was back with the Squadron. On November 14th 1943 the Squadron moved to India and flew its aircraft to the Burmese frontier area.

     Dad told me, “We flew our Hurricanes as a squadron to Burma. I read a Readers Digest cover to cover flying formation on that trip.”

     Ground attack missions against Japanese positions in Burma were carried out with P-47 Thunderbolts fighters.” We gave the Japs a rough time with our 20mm cannons.” Irv.

    P47 Thunderbolt

    “After the Monsoon we came back with P47’s. They then hung a 250 lb. bomb on each wing and instructions how to bomb – (written by a Spitfire pilot I think). However we developed our own system. Approached target at over 8 thousand feet, closed throttle, pulled up sharply. Did a stall turn, prop in fine pitch – dropped the eggs as soon as lined up in the vertical dive and then pulled out. With practice it was very accurate and only a short blackout.” Irv.

    Spitfire

    Promoted Flight Lieutenant, 13 September 1943 Irvin Lawrence Lowen was awarded the Mentioned in Despatches [a military award for gallantry or otherwise commendable service] and published in the London Gazette 14th Jan. 1944. Repatriated 12 April 1945. To No.2 Air Command, 22 May 1945. To No.5 Release Centre, Winnipeg, 6th August 1945. Retired 5 September 1945.

    Aircraft                                                Period of Service

    Hurricane 11B & 11C                Jan 1943–Aug 1944

    Spitfire VB &VC                     Jun 1943-Aug 1943

    Thunderbolt P47                     Aug 1944- Jun 1945 


  • No Title

    2018 Bison Classic Motorcycle Rally

    June 22nd-24th 2018  The year of the Yamaha

     

     

    Clarence Holigroski is the chair of the rally committee.

    Clarence Holigroski

    Chairman – Clarence Holigroski 204-668-5998

    Registration – Kim Robinson

    Show N Shine – John Thompson


  • Wanted

    WANTED To complete Manitoba Motorcycle license Plate run 1919 1922 1927
    and also a WW2 Leather dispatch rider’s Jerkin
    Old Nicholson Brothers and North West Cycle catalogues

    Contact Ross at moose102 at mymts.net or 831-8165 and I’ll make you rich.

    Please see www.manitobaplates.com


  • Norton Carb Synchronizing

    All the 750cc Norton Commando’s and the earlier 850cc models were fitted with a more-or-less rectangular air filter with two shaped rubber hose connectors from carbs to the filter front plate.
    Restorers will know what a difficult job it is to assemble the carbs, connecting hoses and filter between engine and frame, and then afterwards how difficult it is just to change a filter element. Only in 1974 with the MK2A 850’s, did Norton’s change to a much simpler and easy-to-get-at pad type air filter which could be changed in minutes.

    Setting up and tuning carburetors with BSA or Triumph twins with their dual easy-removable “pancake” air filters was easy, enabling one to get into both carb intakes to “finger feel,” or the other trick of inserting two same-sized drill bits shank first under the slide cut-away’s, and watch to see them dip evenly as you tweak the throttle.

    Final carb setting is not easy on a Commando because it is NOT a five minute job to get into the carb intakes to adjust the all-important simultaneous slide lift. Much easier way is to use two pieces of straight wire inserted through the top cap usually blanked off holes for choke slide, and watch the tips rise together. Easer to see if you glue a piece of white board on top of the wire. This all assuming of course that you have as most British bike owners of Amal carbed bikes have done, and discarded the choke mechanism, and again what many Commando owners have done and replaced the original air filter with K&N cone filters. If my carbs still had choke slides I would have drilled small holes in the carb tops to take the wire, then blocked them up again, rather than battle with taking that #@?!! air filter off and then on again!

     


  • 2017

    The 17th Annual Bison Classic Motorcycle Rally was held in Kings Park, Carman Mb.  June 23rd -25th 2017

    •  

    Clarence Holigroski is the chair of the rally committee.

    Clarence Holigroski

    Chairman – Clarence Holigroski 204-668-5998

    Registration – Kim Robinson

    Show N Shine – John Thompson

    Games – The Brothers Charleton

    Catering – Dave Pritchard

    Cleanup – Everyone!

    Photography – Irv Peters, Joe Friesen, Lyle Ball, Greg Hygaard

    Prizes – Tim Klassen

    Parade – Tom Hesom, Greg O’Kane

    Regalia sales – Rick Peters, Mike Baraschuk, Rick Poirier  


  • CARBURETOR CLEANING

    CCcC

    One of the most important jobs on any restoration is to re-build the carburetors, and before a re-build they need a thorough cleaning.  There are numerous expensive acid-based carb cleaning liquids on the market, but a cheaper method that works is as follows ;–

    1)  Get hold of an old saucepan (pot) that is big enough to enable the carb components to lie on the bottom without being on top of each other.  I have commandeered a pot that was going to be thrown out because it had been allowed to cook dry at some stage..

    2)  Fill it enough to just cover the carb parts with a third each of water, white vinegar and lemon juice, ( the kind you can buy in a plastic bottle at the grocery store called ReaLemon)

    3)  Wait till she has gone shopping, and boil on her stove for about 20 minutes.  (It must be bubbling and it stinks!)

    4)  Tip out the hot liquid and rinse several times with cold water.

    5)  Blow out excess water with an airhose through all the airways and lay out on a clean cloth and allow to dry.

    6)  The parts and air passages are beautifully clean but everything will be covered in a very fine grey powder which is easily brushed off with an old tooth brush or similar. If you want a nice dull shine, a soft brass bristle brush works fine (I bought a whole set including the brass bristle one, from Dolarama)

    A dull grey fine powder like the “bloom” on a grape!
    The bloom removed and parts brushed
    Re-built carbs with new gaskets & jets etc.

  • No Title

    FAIL SAFE ANTI WET-SUMPING VALVE

    For the un-iniated, Classic British motorcycles are prone to wet-sumping after an extended lay-over period, such as Canada’s long cold winters, and in some bad cases even after a couple of weeks. Because of their dry sump design where oil is stored in a separate tank, then fed through the engine under pressure from the oil pump and returned to the tank from the bottom of the crankcase by a “scavenger” pump or return pump, oil tends to leak through the oil pump and collect at the bottom of the crankcase.  The more worn the pump the worse the bypass leak is.  Gear type pumps (Norton and AJS/Matchless Twins) are worse than plunger type pumps (Triumph/ AJS & Matchless singles)  Whilst slightly worn pumps will deliver pressurized oil satisfactorily and not be in need of an expensive overhaul or replacement, the wet-sumping problem is a tiresome nuisance on start-up after lay-over, and in extreme cases can cause excess crankcase pressure with oil leaking all over and even blown gaskets, before the scavenger pump has time to pump the excess oil back into the tank.

    Not to mention clouds of blue smoke until the oil is cleared.  My neighbour came running one spring start up thinking my garage was on fire!

    There has been much written about solutions for curing wet-sumping.  Commercial parts suppliers offer various types of anti wet-sumping valves with prices varying from $35 to $300.  The simplest and cheapest consist of a steel ball closing on a seat under spring pressure and rely on the pumps suction to draw the ball off the seat and allow the life preserving oil to flow to the pump.  The internet is full of stories about what happens when these valves DON”T open and the spectacular melt-downs that take place between the riders legs shortly afterwards and not far down the road!

    The simplest of all is to install an on/off valve on the hose between the tank and the pump.  This of course relies on the rider/owner remembering to turn it off before lay-over and most importantly, to turn it ON BEFORE RE-STARTING!

    Therein lies the problem. Murphy always intervenes and there are as many internet stories about how he forgot and trashed a first out restored beauty that he had been restoring for the last five years!

    The most expensive valves incorporate some form of fail safe device that does not allow the bike to be started until the valve is opened.  The other option is to go the expensive route and rebuild or renew an oil pump which is still giving a more than adequate oil delivery. It is also not unknown for some rebuilt pumps to still leak oil past.

     

    Always on the look-out for a better and cheaper way I bought a ball type lever valve with hose barb on both ends from Rona for under $10 and a Honeywell model WWG24A302  3 terminal limit switch from Acklands Grainger for $4.63  I drilled two small holes in the brass valve body and tapped them to accept two machine screws. This has to be done like porcupines making love ie; CAREFULLY Not too deep so as not to interfere with the stainless steel ball or the teflon seals. A small bracket was made using 1″ aluminium angle cut to size and drilled accordingly, with slotted holes so that the switch could be positioned so that the heel of the valve lever would actuate the switch arm/roller. With one ground terminal and two other make and break terminals it was possible to wire the limit switch to cut out the ignition switch or ground out a magneto through the stop/grounding button.  Thus the bike will not start until the valve has been opened and that life-preserving golden liquid is flowing to that oil pump and giving a finger to our old friend Murphy!

    DSCN1968

    Valve open- switch arm off contact.

    DSCN1969

    Valve closed – Switch arm depressed contact made.

  • 2014 Bison Rally

    trophy

    The 2014 Bison Classic Motorcycle Rally was a great success and some thank yous need to go out.

    Chairman-Chas Peters

    Co-Chair-Clarence Holigroski

    Registration-Kim Robinson

    Show N Shine- John Thompson

    Security-Dave Bjornson

    Games-Rick Warkentin

    Catering-Trisha Warkentin

    Cleanup-Terry Neustater

    Photography-Erv Peters, Gord Peters

    Prizes – Tim Klassen

    Parade-Tom Hesom

    Regalia-Rick Peters, Mike Baraschuk

    And the many more that stepped up and helped a little or a lot and also to all that attended.

    If you are interested in a DVD slide show of the Rally weekend contact us via email or at a meeting to order a copy. Cost is $5.00 and all the money goes to the The Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus Association of Manitoba.

    ________________________________


  • JIS vs Phillips

    JIS – or Japanese Industrial Standard – is a Pacific Rim standard used for “Philips” (cross, star,) type screwdrivers. Most people, professional mechanics included, don’t even know that such a thing exists. But every “Philips” screw on a Japanese vehicle is not a Philips screw at all, but a JIS screw. They can be identified with a small dot on the top of the screw:
    screw

    Philips screwdrivers don’t fit JIS screws, at least not properly. Because they don’t fit all the way into the screw, you tend to mangle the screw when attempting to tighten it, or loosen a tight one. If you have any “Philips” screws on your Japanese bike that are stripped or mangled, this is what has happened. The solution? A set of JIS screwdrivers.

    Some places to get JIS drivers are:

    Vessel tools 
    RJR Tools


  • 2013 Bison Rally

    scan0001

    The 2013 Bison Rally is in the books for another year and by all accounts it was a great success.

    Here are a few pics from Saturday.

    Thanks to all that organized and helped in making this a successful event.

    __________________________________________

    HE LIVES IN WELLINGTON CRESCENT,

    AND THE PARTY WAS VERY PLEASANT.

    FELL ASLEEP AT THE TABLE – – 

                         AND SO WAS NOT ABLE,

    TO GO UP AND FETCH HIS PRESENT !

    sleep digger

    _________________________________________


  • Chrome Cleaning

    A tip to get those nasty burned-on rubber boot sole marks off of your exhaust chrome. Especially bad on airhead BMW’s.

    Rub with a cloth and “Ceramabrite”; the white paste your wife uses to clean her glass top stove. ( Make sure to take it when she is not looking!  My wife remains eternally suspicious after I washed my motorcycle engine halves in her dish washer!)

    For real stubborn marks grade 00 Superfine steel wool works wonders. ( Also to be found amongst her cleaning things!)


  • No Title

    2020 Bison Classic Motorcycle Rally

    Friday July 3rd thru Sunday July 5th 

    Location is the same as last year’s rally, Cartier Park in Ste Agathe Manitoba

    Registration forms coming soon.  This years’ marquee make is Harley Davidson.

    Della Beattie is the rally registrar 204-757-2686

    This year’s featured Marque is Harley Davidson

     Ken Charleton is this years’ chair of the rally committee.

    Chairman – Ken Charleton 204-694-0123

     

     

     

     

     


  • 2012 Bison Rally

    BISON CLASSIC MOTORCYCLE RALLY 2012
    Friday June 29 dawned bright and sunny with a gentle breeze to cool things down.  Absolute perfect rally weather.  Early members of the organizing committee began arriving at the arena from 10am and the urgent business of getting ready began.  Rally signs had been put up at road intersections on the way.  Banners and bunting was erected, tables and chairs put out in the dining area, and paraphernalia for the motorcycle games was brought in. Those in charge of catering started preparing their multiple tasks to provide the four meals included in the $45 rally cost.

    Soon the motorhomes, camper trailers and tenters on their motorcycles started to drift in, and the Registration table was hard-pressed to cope.  The day got hotter but this didn’t stop the participants from enjoying a chili supper and a two-guitar hoot -n -nanny around the bonfire. A banjo joined later  and festivities continued on till late.

    Saturday 30th was the main day with a Parade through town beginning at 9.30am and culminating with a Show & Shine in the Credit Union parking lot. Over 130 classic and vintage motorcycles registered for the show and the many spectators were not disappointed.  There were many more spectators than last year thanks to more local advertising of the event. Motorcycles lined both sides of the main street from bikers who had ridden in just to view the classics on display. The weather played it’s part again and although very hot there was no rain or wind. A local church group did a roaring trade selling bottled water & pop plus delicious farmer sausage buns.  The games went off very well and about 130 hungry bikers ended up in the arena for a scrumptious steak or chicken dinner, live music and Trophy awards. The bonfire was again popular till late.

    Sunday morning saw two groups ; a slow shorter run for the older classic machines, and a faster, longer ride for the more modern bikes, on a “River Run” and Poker Derby.  No less than 42 motorcycles took part with all back at 11am to partake of a delicious sausage, egg and potato Brunch. Packing and cleaning up commenced, final farewells said, and the bikers roared off shouting that they would  be back next year!

    Another highly successful Bison Classic Rally under the belt with the Rally Committee geared for a “de-briefing” meeting soon and then plans begin right away for the 13th Annual Bison Rally in 2013.


  • Constitution

    The original AMCM constitution form 1977

    Have a read … click on the picture

    * Note The AMCM constitution was updated in 2014 to better reflect changes in technology and club needs. A copy of the new constitution may be requested by any current member.

    ________________________________________________________


  • No Title

    This is our 40th year but 10 years ago Ross Metcalfe addressed the the club with a bit of interesting history.

    Antique Motorcycle Club of Manitoba
    30th Anniversary
    Submitted by Ross Metcalfe
    It is well known that Siggi and I organized the club back in January of 1977. The first meeting was held at the old Rothman’s board office on St. James Street.

    There was free coffee and free small sample packages of cigarettes for all members who attended. It was an excellent meeting place.
    In January of 1977, 16 members paid their $5.00 dues and thus began the AMCM. By the March meeting, the membership had swelled to 26.

    Although some may say the first meeting constitutes a charter member,

    I would like to let the record reflect that anyone who joined in 1977 would be referred to as a charter member.

    And so, here they are:
    January 1977 meeting  As of Nov2011
    Ross Metcalfe                   active member
    Siggi Klann                           active member
    Jim Bailey                            active member
    Bert Bentley                       deceased
    Tim Forrest                         deceased
    Len Hardy                            deceased
    Jim Harrison                       active member
    Cam Lennerton                 deceased
    Dave Oates                         deceased
    Allan Proctor                      deceased
    Tiny Robins                         deceased
    Fletcher Reid                     deceased; his son still owns his Indian Chief
    Graeme Smith                   active member
    Barry Seib                           active member
    Stan Townsend                 in the neighborhood
    Ed Wiebe                             deceased; his ‘38 Chief went to Regina
    March 1977meeting
    John & Pat Choquette         active members
    Jake Dyck                            not known
    Tom Ellison                         moved out of province
    Laddie Nos                          deceased
    Philip Paterson                  not known
    Jim Simmons                      deceased (2012)
    Jim Gold                               in the neighborhood
    Ray Houde                          active member
    Pat Larmigan                      not known
    T. H. Metcalfe                     deceased

    Here is the updated list of Past Presidents:
    1977 Ross Metcalfe
    1978 Ross Metcalfe
    1979 Jim Harrison
    1980 Jim Simmons
    1981 Ed Pauch
    1982 Mike Baraschuk
    1983 Randy Maunder
    1984 Craig Kraft
    1985 Craig Kraft
    1986 Barry Seib
    1987 Siggi Klann

    1988 Ed Maisey
    1989 Ed Maisey
    1990 Ed Maisey
    1991-2001 Jim Harrison

    2002 Jerry Stubbington

    2003 Jerry Stubbington
    2004 Greg O’Kane

    2005 Greg O’Kane

    2006 Jim Reimer

    2007 Jim Reimer
    2008 Jerry Stubbington

    2009 Jerry Stubbington

    2010 Ross Metcalfe

    2011 Ross Metcalfe

    2012 Ross Metcalfe

    2013 Ross Metcalfe

    2014 Ross Metcalfe

    2015 Ross Metcalfe

    2016 Rick Poirier

    2017 Rick Poirier

    2018 Rick Poirier

    2019 Barry Fudge

    Updated July 2019